English Philology Department Peculiarities of the Passive Voice in English Course paperby:third-year studentof foreign language - 2010 CONTENTSINTRODUCTIONI. THE PASSIVE VOICE AS THE GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF THE VERB
1.1 Verbal Categories of Voice
1.1.1 General outline of the Active and the Passive Voice in English
1.1.2 Semantic and lexical differences
.2 The General Characteristic of the Passive Voice in English
.2.1 The formation of the Passive Voice
.2.2 Different kinds of passives
.2.3 The interaction of the passive voice with modals and perfect tenses
.2.4 The usage of the Passive Voice
.2.5 Stative passivesII. THE PECULIARITIES OF THE USE OF THE PASSIVE VOICE IN THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATUREOF USED LITERATURE INTRODUCTION The theme of our course paper is the Passive Voice. It deals with the general characteristic of the Passive Voice and its usage. The practical part of the paper is based on the material of the scientific literature. It is very important for English learners to know the general characteristic of the Passive Voice since they must realize that the Passive Voice is often applied in the English language.the Passive Voice is of the great use more in the scientific literature than in the fiction, and more in written than colloquial language, it is very important to learn more about peculiarities of its usage. That’s why the topic that had been chosen presents certain theoretical difficulties. Though the analysis of the Passive Voice in English as a grammatical category has found their reflections in many linguists’ works, none of them contain exhaustive information about the peculiarities of its functioning in particular cases. Our course paper is directed to enrich the knowledge about the specific character and peculiarities of the usage of the Passive Voice in modern English. We, English learners, need to know more about the Passive Voice; in particular we need more information about when and why it is used.study of theoretical grammar resources relating to the study of the Passive Voice is the theoretical importance of the research. That’s why the purpose of our course work is to clarify peculiarities of the usage of the Passive Voice. The tasks that have been put for achieving the aim are the following:
ü to study general characteristics of the Passive Voice;
ü to give a description of the formation of the Passive Voice;
ü to describe the usage of the Passive Voice.
The object of our course paper is functioning of the Passive Voice in the English language.
The subject of our work is the peculiarities of the usage of the Passive Voice and its functions in the sentence.
The material used for our course paper comprises a lot of examples of the usage of the Passive Voice taken from the scientific literature.
The structure of the course work contains the introduction, theoretical chapter I, practical chapter II, conclusions and the list of used literature.
The introduction of the work shows the actuality of the problem of the usage of the Passive Voice. The object and the subject of our course paper are clarified. The purpose and the main tasks for achieving the aim of the work are pointed out. The structure of the course paper is described.
The chapter I presents general information about the formation of the Passive Voice and its usage.
The chapter II gives the examples of the use of the Passive Voice selected from the scientific literature.
The conclusions sum up the information given in the course paper.
The list of used literature enumerates the sources used in the course paper. CHAPTER I. THE PASSIVE VOICE AS THE GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY OF THE VERB 1.1 Verbal Categories of Voice 1.1.1 General Outline of the Active and the Passive Voice in English
The verbal category of Voice is an expression of relationship between an action and its subject and object. In other words, as a grammatical category, Voice shows the relation between the action and its subject, namely, it indicates whether the action is performed by the subject or passes on to it. As a result, Voice is connected with the sentence structure more than other verbal categories. There are two voices in English:
ü The Active Voice, that shows that the action is performed by its subject, i.e. that the subject is the doer of the action.
e.g. James sent me a letter.
ü The Passive Voice that shows that the subject is acted upon, that it is the recipient of the action.
e.g. A letter was sent to me by James.
The opposition is based on the direction of an action. According to the traditional approach to Voice, verbal forms, among other peculiarities, indicate relations between an action and its subject, i.e. Active Voice is used to denote actions directed from the person or thing expressed by subject, whereas Passive Voice forms show that an action is directed towards the subject [1; 123].scientists distinguish more voices in the English language. .1.2 Semantic and lexical differences
An issue of importance concerns the semantic differences that exist between the active and the passive voice. First of all, passive and active sentences may sometimes differ in meaning - e. g. as Chomsky (1965) and Lakoff (1968) have pointed out, the active and passive sentences in the following two pairs are not completely synonymous.to Chomsky:
Everyone in the room speaks two languages. (i.e., any two languages per person)
Two languages are spoken by everyone in the room. (i.e., two specific languages that everybody speaks)to Lakoff:
Few people read many books. (i.e., There are few people in this world who read lots of books.)
Many books are read by few people. (i.e., There are many books that are read by very few